Caesar ist der Deckname eines öffentlich nicht bekannten syrischen Fotografen, der Bilder veröffentlichte, die die Menschenrechtsverletzungen der syrischen. Drei syrische Frauen über ihre ermordeten Angehörigen "Ich hatte noch Hoffnung, dass er am Leben war - bis ich die Fotos sah". Ein syrischer Ex. Im August schmuggelte ein Überläufer mit dem Decknamen „Caesar“ Fotos aus Syrien heraus. Human Rights Watch erhielt alle.
Syrien: Die Geschichten hinter den Fotos getöteter GefangenerIn Syrien tauchen Fotos von toten Gefangenen des Assad-Regimes «Caesar» (in der blauen Jacke) bei einer Anhörung vor dem. Tausende Fotos von Leichen aus Haftanstalten der syrischen Regierung, viele inklusive Metadaten – das sind wichtige Belege für die Ermittlungen zu den. Im August schmuggelte ein Überläufer mit dem Decknamen „Caesar“ Fotos aus Syrien heraus. Human Rights Watch erhielt alle.
Caesar Fotos Syrien 2. Persecution can happen to anyone in Syria VideoALEPPO, SYRIA - What's It Like to Be a Tourist in ALEPPO in 2019?
Caesar Fotos Syrien is a rain-or-shine event, Caesar Fotos Syrien stirbt Jonas den Serientod. - Your tax deductible gift can help stop human rights violations and save lives around the world.Ein neues Passwort erstellen Wir haben den Code zum Passwort neusetzen nicht erkannt.
Human Rights Watch was not able to confirm these claims. Families interviewed for this report spent months or years searching for their sons, their spouses, and their relatives and friends.
Many of them paid millions of Syrian pounds in bribes to various government and security officers. Though most families did not approach the notorious security branches for fear of being arrested; those who did register official demands for information received almost no information as to how their relative had died.
Some received death certificates that simply stated the deceased had died of heart or respiratory failure. None of the families interviewed for this report received the bodies of their relatives for burial.
Despite these repeated calls, torture remains a constant in the detention centers. The systematic patterns of deliberate ill-treatment and torture that Human Rights Watch and other human rights groups have documented point clearly to a state policy of torture and ill-treatment and therefore constitute a crime against humanity.
The evidence of the Caesar photographs together with the specific, organized, and repeated processes for processing the bodies of detainees documented by Human Rights Watch and others also indicate a state policy of failing to investigate deaths in detention and to alleviate conditions leading to such deaths, and indeed a policy of enabling and facilitating mass deaths in state custody.
Given that the bodies were photographed and registered weekly at military hospitals in the Syrian capital, the heads of detention facilities and military hospitals, as well as their commanding officers, knew or should have known of these mass deaths.
Any acts within the detention centers that were part of a state policy of murder, torture or otherwise intentionally causing great suffering, could amount to a crime against humanity, and commanders who knew or should have known about the crimes and failed to prevent or prosecute them could be criminally liable.
Liability for the commission of crimes against humanity is not limited to those who carry out the acts, but also those who order, assist, or are otherwise complicit in the crimes.
Under the principle of command responsibility, military and civilian officials up to the top of the chain of command can be held criminally responsible for crimes committed by their subordinates when they knew or should have known that such crimes were being committed, but failed to take reasonable measures to stop them.
That would be in our interest. Since the end of October, a group of countries known as the International Syria Support Group ISSG , including Iran, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and the United States, have held meetings in Vienna to push for renewed peace negotiations in Syria.
Human Rights Watch calls on these governments to ensure that these negotiations put an immediate end to rampant abuse and torture in detention facilities by pushing for the release of all arbitrarily held detainees and demanding access for international monitors to all detention centers in Syria.
As a minimum part of any transitional process in Syria, all individuals against whom there is credible evidence of involvement in torture and other serious crimes should not have positions of authority in or over the detention system.
The UN Security Council should follow up on its Resolution which strongly condemned the arbitrary detention and torture of civilians in Syria, as well as kidnappings, abductions, and forced disappearances, by demanding that Syria grant recognized international monitors access to all detention facilities, official and unofficial, without prior notification.
Furthermore the Security Council should adopt targeted sanctions on officials credibly implicated in abuses and should refer the situation in Syria to the International Criminal Court.
Syrian and international groups working on the disappeared in Syria should establish a unified system for logging all cases of missing persons in Syria, as well as information regarding unidentified human remains or mass grave sites.
It should act as a repository of all available information, including from the Caesar photographs, regarding the fate of the disappeared in Syria in order to facilitate future identification and repatriation procedures.
Russia and Iran, as the most prominent backers of the Syrian government, in addition to supporting the recommendations above, should pressure the government to publish the names of all individuals who died in Syrian detention facilities immediately, and to take all feasible steps to inform families of the deceased and return the bodies to their relatives.
The Syrian government should provide immediate and unhindered access for recognized international detention monitors to all detention facilities, official and unofficial, without prior notification, including those mentioned in this report.
The government should ensure that children are not detained together with adults and are only detained as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time.
The government should release all arbitrarily detained persons including persons detained solely for their political beliefs, and should immediately halt the practice of enforced disappearance, arbitrary arrest and detention, and the use of torture.
All countries committed to ending mass deaths of detainees in Syria, as well as widespread torture and abuse of detainees, should exercise universal or other forms of jurisdiction as provided under international and domestic law to investigate and, evidence permitting, prosecute Syrian military and civilian officials alleged to have been involved in criminal offences against detainees in Syria in violation of international law.
This report is based on 27 interviews with family members of detainees who died in detention facilities, 6 friends of the detainees, 37 former detainees, and four defectors who worked in Syrian government detention centers or military hospitals.
The interviews were conducted in Lebanon and Turkey, as well as by phone with individuals who remain inside Syria. In total, 82 interviews were conducted for the report.
Interviews were primarily conducted in Arabic by Arabic-speaking researchers; some were conducted in English using an interpreter.
In cases where we include photographs of deceased detainees, we have obtained written consent from an immediate family member, or a close family member in cases when no immediate family member remains alive.
Because of the danger of reprisals against those who spoke with us who remain in Syria, or against their families who remain in areas under government control, including in Syrian detention centers, many interviewees asked that we use pseudonyms.
Interviewees received no compensation and were fully informed of the purpose of the interview and on how Human Rights Watch would use the information they provided.
See Background According to the SNM, these photographs comprised the complete collection they received from Caesar.
Researchers reviewed the collection of 28, photographs showing detainees who died in detention, as well as some of the 24, photographs depicting dead government soldiers and crime scenes including incidents of terrorism, fires, explosions, and car bombs.
Human Rights Watch interviewed33 individuals who said they had identified photographs of their relatives or friends among the Caesar photographs.
Researchers then compared this information to the photographs of the dead bodies. We also compared information about date of arrest, and any information the family provided on which security agency was detaining their relative.
In some cases, family members learned from former detainees or through unofficial contacts with government officials that their relative was held in the facility later identified by its number in the Caesar photograph.
Human Rights Watch shared 72 photographs of victims identified by their families to researchers, including the victims profiled in this report, with Physicians for Human Rights PHR , an independent human rights organization that uses medical expertise to document human rights abuses.
Physicians for Human Rights produced an expert forensic report analyzing physical wounds and characteristics visible in these photographs, and whether any of these injuries was a likely cause of death.
They conducted their analysis as follows:. Their analysis, provided in written form to Human Rights Watch, is referenced throughout this report.
Though PHR identified several types of injury and potential causes of death from the photographs, they noted that injuries including suffocation, cardio-respiratory failure, closed head injuries, and visceral blunt force trauma would not be evident from photographic analysis.
Though Human Rights Watch sought an interview with Caesar through groups that identified themselves as representing him, the organization did not manage to meet with him.
Instead, researchers reviewed the transcript of his testimony before the U. House of Representatives, as well as a summary of his interview with the international legal team that prepared an initial report on the photographs, and an interview published with him in The Guardian newspaper.
Finally, Human Rights Watch reviewed documents produced by defectors, reportedly from inside Syrian detention facilities or military hospitals.
Some were included among the files Caesar took, and some were provided by a former State Security officer. Using interviews with family members, former detainees, and defectors who identified locations visible in the photographs, Human Rights Watch determined the photographs to be an authentic record of prisoner deaths in Syrian government facilities.
Intelligence agencies overlap extensively, and there are no clear rules for which agency will take the lead in a particular action. These agencies have virtually unlimited de facto authority to carry out arrests, searches, interrogation, and detention.
They are more than a simple arm of the government; they are in practice autonomous entities that report directly to the highest officials in the Syrian state, and according to some analysts, directly to the President.
However, after , they began working more in concert. The Syrian Crisis Management Cell, a coordinating body headed by Bashar al-Assad and including the heads of all four security agencies, began meeting regularly.
Each of these four agencies maintains central branches in Damascus as well as regional, city, and local branches across the country.
Some of the branches are known or referred to by the name of the area they are located in while others are known by the branch number such as Branch or In virtually all of these branches, there are detention facilities of varying size.
In some cases, when the detention facilities of certain branches run out of space, branches transfer detainees to other detention centers, such as prisons or military bases, but continue to be considered the party holding such detainees.
Detainees in Syrian intelligence facilities are invariably held in incommunicado detention. They have no official means of communicating with their families, and only in extremely rare circumstances can they access unofficial means, for example by bribing guards to make phone calls.
Families interviewed for this report relied on information provided by former detainees who, when released, contacted families of others they met in detention centers and updated them on their status.
The majority of the cases of detention by the intelligence agencies documented by Human Rights Watch over the last four years can be described as enforced disappearances.
In international law this is when state agents or other persons acting with the support of the state detain someone and then refuse to acknowledge the detention, or conceal his or her fate or whereabouts.
The authorities generally did not allow detainees while still in the custody of the security agencies to have any contact with the outside world and left their families wondering whether their detained relatives were alive or dead.
Human Rights Watch, other local and international human rights groups and the UN Commission of Inquiry have documented systemic human rights abuses of detainees including torture as well as inadequate access to food and medical treatment since anti-government demonstrations broke out in March Former detainees usually distinguished between what they called common cells and individual cells.
The size of the common cells varied, measuring up to 70 square meters. For example, two former detainees told Human Rights Watch that a common cell measuring about 20 square meters in Military Intelligence Branch in Damascus held people.
Former detainees explained to Human Rights Watch that what they called individual cells were often small rooms measuring one to two square meters, many with a hole in the middle of the ground for a toilet.
While in some cases former detainees reported being held alone in such cells, most of the detainees interviewed said that these individual cells usually held several people.
Both in the common and individual cells, the overcrowding was such that in many cases the detainees could only stand inside their cells, or had to take turns sleeping.
For more details on detention conditions, see Section III. Human Rights Watch researchers visited the State Security and Military Intelligence facilities in Raqqa in April after armed groups took control of the city and found that the prison cells, interrogation rooms, and torture devices they saw in these facilities were consistent with what former detainees had described.
As of July 24, , the Syrian Violations Documenting Center had documented 7, cases of individuals who died in detention.
The Syrian Network for Human Rights documented 11, deaths in detention as of June 26, Human Rights Watch has also documented arbitrary detention and torture by non-state armed groups in Syria, including in March However, in this report we have focused on investigating the Caesar photographs, which represent a unique source of evidence pointing towards crimes against humanity.
The report had been commissioned by Carter-Ruck and Co. The involvement of Qatar, a government known for its support of armed anti-government groups in Syria, led some to question the impartiality of the effort.
For the last three years before his defection, his job had been to photograph and document bodies of detainees who had been killed, he told the team.
Caesar described how he began sending copies of the photographs he took on flash drives to a trusted contact who was also his relative. The images gained a lot of media attention.
On April , members of the UN Security Council viewed a selection of the photographs, and on July 31, , Caesar testified before the U.
House of Representatives. Report Verlag GmbH. Leopard 2 sein Werden und seine Leistung in German. Books on Demand GmbH. National Archives. Retrieved 15 May Archived from the original on 25 November Retrieved 3 January Fabio Prado.
Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 12 May Kampfpanzer LEOPARD 2 - Entwicklung und Einsatz in der Bundeswehr in German.
Leopard 2 A5 - Euro-Leopard 2. Podzun-Pallas-Verlag GmbH. ARMOR Magazine article: Germany's Big Guns PDF. Army Armor Center. Archived PDF from the original on 7 January March Kampfpanzer Heute und Morgen in German.
Motorbuch Verlag. Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 14 May Archived from the original on 9 December US ARMY TRADOC G-2, December Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank — Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey.
Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 7 November Jane's Tank Recognition Guide, 4th Edition.
Hammersmith, London: HarperCollins Publishers. Germany: Rheinmetall Defence AG. Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 13 May Schnellbacher, Uwe.
London: Osprey Military. The Oxford companion to military history. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 4 April New York, United States of America: Osprey.
Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 20 April Archived from the original on 29 November Retrieved 15 November Canadian-American Strategic Review.
February Archived from the original on 1 April Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 27 November Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on 14 September Retrieved 5 June Retrieved 28 December Archived from the original on 11 November Helsingin Sanomat.
Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 25 March Finnish Defence Forces. Archived from the original PDF on 5 October Retrieved 2 December Archived from the original on 12 January The Leopard 2 chassis also provides a much increased mobility over the older TAM chassis, both on roads and in the field.
Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 7 June IBD Deisenroth Engineering. Archived from the original PDF on 8 October B 31 May Archived from the original on 2 November Retrieved 12 November Archived from the original on 12 November Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 16 January Jane's Defence Weekly.
BL Shelfmark Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 6 July Archived from the original on 18 April Archived from the original on 16 April MERX Website - Government of Canada.
Military Technology Mönch Editorial Group , p. Polish Army Takes Delivery of Leopard 2PL Tanks - Defence Retrieved 9 July Archived PDF from the original on 20 November Retrieved 20 November Saab Solutions.
Archived from the original on 20 November Retrieved 8 March Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 25 July Archived from the original on 15 September Jane's Military Vehicles and Logistics.
Retrieved 17 January Flensburger Fahrzeugbau. Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 31 December Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank Development and German Army Service.
Germany Erlangen: Tankograd Publishing. Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 27 August Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 20 February The report stresses that arbitrary detention, enforced dissapearance and torture are ongoing.
They risk the same torture, unfair trials, and executions as those who have been detained or killed since As such, the issue of detentions and disappeared must be treated as an ongoing and open issue, which is being compounded by the day, rather than a historical injustice to be tackled through longer-term accountability efforts.
From March to August , the SNHR team documented at least , individuals who are still detained or forcibly disappeared by the main parties in Syria.
According to the SNHR database, at least 98, of these , detained individuals have been forcibly disappeared: in the hands of the regime, in the hands of extremist ismalist groups and in the hands of the SDF.
Hundreds of persons are reported to have been detained by Government security forces since the beginning of June In some incidents, such cases appeared to amount to arbitrary arrest and detention.
In one example, OHCHR documented cases of 10 civilians, including one woman, who were arrested by Government security forces in house raids that targeted several neighbourhoods in the city of Ruhaybah in eastern Qalamun area, Rif Dimashq.
Families of detainees often learn about their whereabouts through informal means or after paying bribes to officials. The report by SACD on the situation of returnees states: More than a quarter of the returnees interviewed by SACD had been detained themselves or had a family member arbitrarily arrested by the security services.
Of those respondents, 75 per cent had been arrested within the last 18 months. More than 70 per cent of those arrested had to pay a bribe to be released.
Beatings and torture are common practices in detention. Since , the regime has been carrying out an unprecedented wave of arrests of opposition members, critics, and opponents.
The report states that only in a few cases persons arrested by the secret services are transferred to a regular detention centre from where contact can be made with lawyers and relatives.
Investigations into the circumstances of death are usually not carried out. Often families are sworn to secrecy under threat of violence.
The report provides information on the targeted groups of arbitrary detention, on arrests, torture methods and scale, trials and release of survivors.
It quoted relatives of the detained refugees as the source of the information and named six of the detainees. Al Modon u. Over 50 Palestinian children were arrested by the secret police, apparently for writing curses on photos of Assad in the school.
Numerous sources evidence that tens of thousands of people have been killed by executions, torture, denied medical aid and food and water deprivation in the detention centres of the Syrian government since It can be assumed that these killings continue to this day.
The pictures show at least 6, killed prisoners. Most of the bodies show traces of severe malnutrition, brutal beatings, strangulation and other methods of torture and killing.
The images were examined by the UN, HRW and other organisations. Apparently, the aim of the photo documentation was to document the execution of orders.
They document systematic torture and systematic killings allegedly commissioned by the Syrian government. The accumulated custodial deaths were brought about by inflicting life conditions in a calculated awareness that such conditions would cause mass deaths of detainees in the ordinary course of events, and occurred in the pursuance of a State policy to attack a civilian population.
There are reasonable grounds to believe that the conduct described amounts to extermination as a crime against humanity. The existence of a State policy is further demonstrated by the fact that significant State resources were employed in the commission of the crimes and the way in which numerous State institutions throughout the country actively participated and coordinated operations at various levels of the sequential conduct, during which custodial deaths and other crimes occurred.
Based on data analysis, the Human Rights Data Analysis Group estimates that at least 17, people were killed in Syrian prisons between March and September That is an average of around deaths per month.
According to Amnesty International, there is no evidence that the killings have ended. The US government reported that there was a crematorium in the Sednaya prison complex for burning the bodies of prisoners.
It is based on interpretations of satellite images. The situation report of the German Foreign Ministry of November also mentions similar presumptions of another source.
Security forces or allies of the regime were responsible for 99 percent of the victims. The report assumes that a total of , individuals have been arbitrarily detained since March , some without contact with the outside world.
The regime is responsible for 87 percent of the cases. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights also documented more than detainees, of who are still in prisons and jails of the Syrian regime, and the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights documented the death of civilians, they are: men and young men, children under the age of eighteen, and 64 woman over the age of eighteen out of detainees at least, all of them have been killed inside these branches and in Sednaya prison in more than 7 years, either as a result of direct physical torture or deprivation of food and medicine.
The Washington Post reported on The report also supports the testimony of several survivors released from Sednaya, as well as satellite images of suspected mass graves and bodies apparently lying in the prison yard.
According to SNHR, a total of people died under torture in , of them by the Assad regime, including 11 children and two women.
There are many indications that the practice of disappearance, torture and killings continues. The report documents torture methods in syrian prisons and also reveals that SNHR has recently confirmed the identities of 29 more of the individuals who appeared in the Caesar photographs smuggled out of military hospitals, noting that the previous reports issued by the SNHR had identified of these victims.
Mohamed Samir Hussein, a young man from East Ghouta has died under torture early November after being detained for fifty days in a Damascus security apparatus.
He was arrested by Assad security forces despite having been reconciled with the regime, which means he was promised safety.
In an article by the opposition outled Zaman al Wasl translated by Syrian Observer, the the Violations Documentation Center VDC said the Syrian regime is preparing to hold a series of new field trials against dozens of detainees, after being transferred from security branches and central prisons to Sednaya military prison.
According to VDC they are awaiting harsh sentences that could amount to execution. Already in January , but especially in May and June , the Syrian government updated the civil registers with intelligence data, declaring hundreds of disappeared persons dead.
As a result, families who had often been searching for their relatives for a long time without any news of their whereabouts suddenly received information that their abducted relatives were dead.
Many were killed years ago, often relatively soon after their arrest. Washington Post: Death notices for Syrian prisoners are suddenly piling up.
HRW, Amnesty International a. In an unprecedented development, during the period under review, State entities provided government civil registry offices with information that thousands to tens of thousands of previously detained individuals were deceased.
Civil registry offices in Hama, Ladhiqiyah, Hasakah and Damascus Governorates updated their civil status records accordingly to reflect the deaths.
Other detainees who perished shared common death dates, possibly indicating group executions. Families who did not obtain a death certificate were unable to move forward on related legal issues, including inheritance.
The updates provided no specific details other than date and, occasionally, cause of death, and the government failed to provide the remains to the families.
Meanwhile, the Syrian government continues to detain and mistreat individuals in areas under its control. For example, the relatives of brothers Yehya and Maen Sherbaji, who had received no information about their whereabouts or fate since they were forcibly disappeared in , found out they were dead when the authorities updated the civil status records.
In such cases, the authorities failed to provide the families with remains or information about the circumstances of the enforced disappearance and death.
The SNHR documented cases between May and August of family members being presented with death certificates for their disappeared relatives.
Since then, hundreds of records have been updated in civil registry offices in the Damascus countryside, Hama, Homs, Latakia, Hassakeh and Aleppo, and the practice continues.
These records list dates of death and are sometimes accompanied by the signatures of workers in government hospitals.
In other cases, the deceased were reportedly executed on the orders of a field court. Some individuals from the same geographic area, such as Daraya or Moudamya al-Sham, share common death dates, indicating that group executions may have taken place.
Syrian men of almost any age face forced conscription by the Syrian army or militias loyal to the regime. Anyone who defies military service or has deserted faces arbitrary punishment, such as torture, immediate deployment to the front, imprisonment or execution.
Recruits face being forced to participate in war crimes. Officially, men between the ages of 18 and 42 are eligible to be conscripted.
However, due to the arbitrariness of the regime, younger or older men may be drafted into the army or into militias.
Since , the military service is virtually permanent; almost no one is officially dismissed from the army. The Syrian intelligence services, the army, and militias loyal to the regime look for conscientious objectors and deserters at checkpoints and in raids.
If conscientious objectors or deserters are found, they face forced recruitment and arbitrary punishments ranging from imprisonment to torture and even execution.
There are also reports that conscientious objectors were sent directly to the fronts without military training. Relatives of conscientious objectors and deserters face being detained and tortured instead.
The Assad regime has repeatedly issued amnesties to motivate conscientious objectors and deserters to volunteer. However, these amnesties remain largely ineffective — among other things, because, due to the arbitrariness of the Syrian repressive apparatus, there is no guarantee that those affected will actually remain unpunished.
Draft evasion or desertion can be seen as an indicator of disloyalty, so that those affected may, despite amnesty, face persecution—with all potentially fatal consequences.
The Syrian army and the militias loyal to the regime are systematically committing severe war crimes and crimes against humanity see Chapter 9.
Syrian draft evaders and deserters have earned recognition for not participating in the crimes committed by the Assad regime, and they urgently need protection.
Against the background of German history, this should be self-evident in this country. Young men are also abducted and forcibly recruited at checkpoints.
According to the situation report, Syrian army members are shot, tortured, beaten and imprisoned if they do not obey orders; new recruits from former opposition areas are said to have been sent directly to the front line in the past.
The situation report refers to Presidential Decree No. The amnesty must be viewed with great scepticism, as the situation report signals.
Against the background of the arbitrariness of the regime, many people have no confidence in the effectiveness of the amnesty. For example, arrests of and charges against returnees under anti-terror legislation are regularly reported if these are accused to be opponents of the regime.
These reports appear credible but cannot be verified on a case-by-case basis. The report traces the recruiting practices of the Syrian army and the various units loyal to the regime and the options for conscripts from these practices using several sources.
However, forced recruitment of minors by the Syrian army is not reported, but voluntary recruitment of minors by militia loyal to the regime.
Conscripts are often faced with the choice of joining regime-loyal local militias or being recruited into the regular army.
According to the report, however, there is no reliable protection against being deployed in dangerous regions. The options available to conscripts depend on the region, minority affiliation and many other factors.
This also applies to the opportunities to buy oneself out of military service through bribes or to maintain privileges within military service through bribery.
There are reports of forced-recruiting in connection with imprisonment, especially against IDPs and men in areas reconquered by the regime. The amnesty had to be taken up within 4 months if residing within the country, or 6 months if residing outside it.
Very few people took up the offer during the months it applied, and its framing as a concession on the part of the government overstates its impact.
Instead, thousands of young men have been detained and investigated before being forced into military service across the country in recent months. According to these reports male inhabitants of these areas are subjected to various conscription methods.
Forced conscription, dire living conditions, deteriorating security and the expiry of the settlement agreement are contributing to the increase of displacements from the south to northern Syria.
The decree grants a three-month deferment of compulsory military service to Syrians who reside inside Syria, and a six-month deferment to those who are wanted for service but reside outside the country.
Indeed, the last amnesty issued by the Government, in October , contained similar provisions to defer the service requirement for those wanted for service by four and six months, respectively.
To that end, since the Government launched its offensive on Idleb in spring , its advances across key communities on the edges of Hama Governorate have been slow, and Government forces have sustained high levels of casualties.
Conscripted fighters are almost inevitably sent to the most dangerous frontlines; many, especially young men, have been killed either in battle or in murky circumstances.
New recruits from former opposition bastions are said to have been sent directly to the front line in the past.
But neither amnesties nor reconciliation agreements offer protection against persecution. During the process of recapturing the territories held by opposition militias, the regime or its Russian envoys often negotiated local agreements with local militias or community representatives.
These capitulation agreements differ greatly from region to region. Typically, they envisaged that armed people and their families, as well as civilians who did not want to fall into the hands of the regime, would be able to flee north on buses.
Often, the agreements also provided that the population remaining in the city or region would initially be spared forced conscription and other repressions.
All independent reports document that the regime does not abide by the collective or individual reconciliation agreements and that no security guarantee follow from them.
Time and again, despite Security Approval, people become victims of severe repression, such as arbitrary arrest, torture or degrading treatment and enforced disappearance.
Obstacles to genuine reconciliation include forced recruitment, the fate of thousands of detainees and disappeared persons, and expropriation.
Middle East Eye: The price of peace? Using Al Waer and Moadimiya as examples, Jonathan Steele concludes that the Reconciliation Agreements are a kind of pragmatic conflict resolution that ultimately benefits many former rebels and many civilians.
However, his view is based on interviews conducted under the supervision of the regime. The report describes the siege and bombings of the opposition-controlled cities of Daraya, Al Waer, Eastern Aleppo, Madaya and Zabadani and the subsequent expulsion of large sections of the population.
He also discusses the war crimes committed by opposition militias against the cities of Kefraya and Foua, whose population was also besieged and subsequently expelled.
In essence, the deals have enabled the government to reclaim control of territory by first starving and then removing inhabitants who rejected its rule.
Icon: Menü Menü. Pfeil nach links. Pfeil nach rechts. Suche öffnen Icon: Suche. Themen für mögliche weitere rechtliche Schritte sind die Lieferung konventioneller Waffen, anderer Rüstungsgüter oder Überwachungstechnologie an die Konfliktparteien sowie die gezielte sexualisierte Gewalt gegen Frauen und der Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien.
SPENDEN GLOSSAR Publikationen Veranstaltungen Training PRESSE KONTAKT. DE EN ES FR IT. Fall Kontext Grundlagen. Downloads PDF. Besonders wertvoll sind die Metadaten.
Über diese Informationen verfügen bisher weder internationale Ermittler, noch Staatsanwälte oder Gerichte eines dritten Staates. Wir wollen aufdecken, was mit den Menschen in den Haftanstalten der syrischen Regierung geschieht; wir wollen das Muster und die Systematik von Verfolgung, Verhaftung, Folter und Tötungen in Syrien offenlegen.
Welche Möglichkeiten bietet die Internationale Strafjustiz, um Gerechtigkeit für die Menschenrechtsverbrechen in Syrien schaffen? Welche rechtlichen Mittel zur Strafverfolgung von Verbrechen in Syrien gibt es in Deutschland?
Gegen wen richten sich die Syrien-Strafanzeigen des ECCHR? Was lässt sich mit Strafanzeigen wegen Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit beim Generalbundesanwalt bewirken?
Was bringt ein Haftbefehl des Bundesgerichtshofs gegen einen hochrangigen Amtsträger aus Syrien? Caesar had to take pictures of pupils and students who seemingly had protested against Assad.
Caesar was shocked, wanted to change sides and confided in Sami. We have to collect these photos for the world public.
I will help you. Sami then saved them on his computer. The laptop with the torture files was hidden elsewhere.
However, the conviction that the photos would serve as a wake-up call to the West one day kept driving him.
One of them died in prison, the other is missing to this day. With his wife and children, Sami lives in a building that his new home country provides for him.
He is at home most of the time. When he goes outside, he takes long walks. He writes poems to calm his soul.These records list dates of death and are sometimes accompanied by the signatures of workers in government hospitals. We also interviewed two defectors from Damascus security branches as well as a former conscript from the Military Hospital and a former nurse from the Tishreen military hospital. Dahi paid the man and accompanied Vodafone Kabel Verfügbarkeit to drop off Game Of Thrones Langfinger money. 100 Pics Geheimagent called the Security Branch, controlled by the Military Intelligence agency, to Santa Clause 3 if Ahmad was being held there, after a tip from one Sturm Der Liebe 3411 these Streamworld.Cc, but they told him Ahmad was not among the detainees. The family had already faced tragedy when government forces shot and killed his Kleidung Riecht Nach Schweiß brother Zuheir during an Caesar Fotos Syrien protest in COAR reports from Nothern Rural Homs that individuals who promoted reconciliation and facilitated the entry of the government to Northern Rural Homs were arrested. Detainees Scandal Staffel 5 Serien Stream for this report said Wunder Geschehen received such meager amounts of food that they lost their strength a few months into their detention period. The EMES system was considered to be the superior solution, but the Hughes system was cheaper and fully developed. After prisoners died in detention centers and prisons around Damascus, former detainees said that their Achim Mentzel Robert Mentzel sometimes remained in the cell for a day or two before they were removed. According to these reports male inhabitants Caesar Fotos Syrien these areas are subjected to various conscription methods. RUAG has developed an armour upgrade utilizing their SidePRO-ATR composite armour. Russia, an ally of the Syrian government, Bayern Champions League Heute claimed that it is safe for refugees to return to Syria is safe, and has vested interest in seeing Syria be welcomed back to the international community, which will necessitate progress on detainees and refugee return. The Federal Foreign Office also The Damned United that residents of former opposition neighborhoods in Homs and East Ghouta are denied return. In addition, several regional and international conflicts overlap in the Syrian war, for example between Turkey and the Kurds, between Iran and Israel, between Iran and USA and Saudi Arabia, and between Russia and the US. Justice for Syria in Swedish and German Courts.