Das Judentum wurde zuerst vor fast Jahren im heutigen Israel verbreitet. Es ist die älteste Religion, deren Anhänger an nur einen Gott glauben. Aus dem. Jude ist, wessen Mutter Jüdin ist. Die Juden bilden aber nicht nur eine Religionsgemeinschaft, sondern auch ein Volk. Erst seit der Mitte des Jahrhunderts gibt. Als die älteste der drei monotheistischen Weltreligionen hat das Judentum auch das Christentum und den Islam geprägt. Ein Überblick von den.
Woran Juden glaubenJude ist, wessen Mutter Jüdin ist. Die Juden bilden aber nicht nur eine Religionsgemeinschaft, sondern auch ein Volk. Erst seit der Mitte des Jahrhunderts gibt. Sie ist für die Juden das Symbol für den Tempel, Gottes Gegenwart und das ewige Leben. Eine Weltreligion. Das Judentum ist eine der fünf großen Weltreligionen. Als die älteste der drei monotheistischen Weltreligionen hat das Judentum auch das Christentum und den Islam geprägt. Ein Überblick von den.
Religion Der Juden Navigation menu VideoWie leben Juden in Deutschland? - Galileo - ProSieben
Adios bis zum nächsten Mal. Religionen erklären den Menschen zum Beispiel den Sinn des Lebens und wie sie leben sollen. Kann man dem Judentum beitreten, obwohl die Mutter keine Jüdin ist?
Das ist echt interessant. Ich finde es gut, dass es so unterschiedliche Religionen gibt. Wie wird man eigentlich Jude?
Also, auch wenn man z. Hallo Cupcake, wenn du Mitglied der jüdischen Gemeinde werden möchtest, dann musst du als Junge die Bar Mizwa und als Mädchen die Bat Mizwa feiern.
Hier erfährst du vieles über die Aufnahme in die Religionen. Was haben die Christen ganz oder ähnlich aus dem Judentum übernommen?
Neues Passwort anfordern. Eure zuletzt gestellten Fragen Wird bei einer Taufe immer der gleiche Spruch verwendet? Warum trägt die indische Flagge das Dharma-Rad der Buddhisten, obwohl in Indien viel mehr Hindus leben?
Wann, wo und wie oft beten Buddhisten? Worin unterscheiden sich die drei Heiligen Bücher im Judentum, Christentum und Islam? Warum sind manche Tiere für Juden unrein?
Ist Jesus Gott, Gottes Sohn oder ein Prophet? Wie viele Propheten gab es in der Bibel? Wo machten die Heiligen Drei Könige Station?
Wie kamen die Hirten in die Bibel? Gibt es im Koran einen Befehl von Allah, was die Kleidung beim Gebet betrifft? Achtung: Hier verlässt du Religionen-entdecken.
Das Judentum ist die älteste Religion, deren Anhänger an nur einen Gott glauben. Sie wurde zuerst vor fast 4. Aus dem Judentum entwickelten sich später das Christentum und der Islam.
Erst vor Jahren entstand aus dem Islam die Bahai-Religion. Alle vier Religionen haben den gemeinsamen Stammvater Abraham.
Von hier aus kannst du das Judentum im Lexikon erforschen. Klicke dazu auf die Themen im Kasten Judentum zum Kennenlernen und auf die Fragen unter dem Text.
Schon entdeckt? Eure Fragen zum Judentum Was unterscheidet und was verbindet das Judentum und das Christentum? Warum sind Judentum und Christentum nicht eins?
Warum entstand das Christentum, obwohl Jesus Jude war? Neben diesem Verbot stellte das Judentum als erstes die zehn Gebote auf, die unter anderem vom Christentum übernommen wurden.
Sie bilden sozusagen das Grundgesetz der Religion, eine erste Menschenrechtserklärung, und beinhalten zum Beispiel die Heiligung des Shabbat-Tages Samstag , das Ehren der Eltern, das Verbot von Diebstahl, Mord, Lügen, Neid und Ehebruch, den Glauben an den einzigen und ewigen Gott sowie das Abbildungsverbot.
Im Judentum ist die Ansicht verbreitet, dass jeder Gläubige sich automatisch an die zehn Gebote sowie alle anderen in der Tora erwähnten Gesetze und Vorschriften hält, wenn er nur das eine Gebot einhält: Keinen anderen Gott zu haben und diesen aus vollem Herzen zu lieben.
Der Bund, den Gott mit dem jüdischen Volk schloss, gilt ewiglich und ist unwiderrufbar. Er ist Ausdruck der göttlichen Treue gegenüber dem Menschen und regelt einerseits die Beziehung des Göttlichen mit dem Menschlichen und andererseits auch die zwischenmenschlichen Beziehungen.
Keine Gesellschaft kann ohne Regelwerk überleben und so tragen die Gebote ihren Teil dazu bei. Sie waren die Heiligsten Orte im Judentum, wurden aber beide zerstört.
Eure Fragen zum Tempelberg in Jerusalem. Heilige Orte im Judentum. Kommentare wie alt ist der tempelberg Permanenter Link 5.
Oktober - Wie alt ist der Tempelberg? Hallo Kokok, wie alt der Permanenter Link 5. Heute ist die Überzeugung, dass es eine Auferstehung der Toten gebe, im Judentum üblich.
Insbesondere im orthodoxen Judentum gibt es auch die Vorstellung einer Reinkarnation. Sie zielt auf irdische Gerechtigkeit und Frieden Schalom.
Ausgehend von der Tora werden die Jahre im Judentum basierend auf der Schöpfung der Welt gezählt. Der jüdische Kalender orientiert sich bei der Monatszählung am Mond Mondkalender , und da zwölf Monde kürzer sind als ein Sonnenjahr , wird dieses durch zusätzliche Schaltmonate ausgeglichen.
Aus diesem Grund fallen die jüdischen Feiertage immer wieder auf andere Kalendertage im weltlichen Kalender. Diese Feiertage gehen alle auf die Torah zurück.
Daneben gibt es noch Feiertage, die erst später von den Rabbinern festgelegt wurden. Hierzu zählen Purim deutsch: Lose und Chanukka deutsch: Weihung.
Jüdische Feiertage und Feste haben einen doppelten Charakter, der sich auch in den verschiedenen Namen ausprägt, die sie tragen. Entweder haben sie Erntenamen Erntefest, Lesefest oder geschichtliche Namen Hüttenfest, Passah.
Schon vor Mose zogen die Israeliten in die Wüste, um das Fest ihres Gottes zu feiern Ex 5,3. In den ersten Generationen nach dem Auszug aus Ägypten gedachte man dieser Traditionen und rühmte an den Festen nun zusätzlich diesen Gott, der scheinbar seine Macht und Gnade für Israel gegenüber den übermächtigen Ägyptern kundgetan hatte.
Im Lauf der Jahrhunderte veränderte sich die Zahl und der Charakter der Feste. Nach der Ansiedlung des Volkes in Kanaan waren die Juden auch ein Volk mit einer bäuerlichen Komponente.
Daher erhielten die Feste mehr landwirtschaftlichen Charakter. Nach und nach bürgerte es sich ein, dass dreimal im Jahr alle Männer vor Jahwe erschienen.
Im Frühjahr vor Beginn der Ernte, im Sommer nach Abschluss der Ernte und im Herbst nach Abschluss der Obst- und Weinlese Ex 23,; 34,23 Deut 16, Sie durften dabei nicht mit leeren Händen erscheinen und brachten Abgaben von der Ernte mit, die sie am Heiligtum opferten oder verzehrten.
Some Romance languages , particularly French and Spanish , are also widely used. In some places, the mother language of the Jewish community differs from that of the general population or the dominant group.
For example, in Quebec , the Ashkenazic majority has adopted English, while the Sephardic minority uses French as its primary language. There is no single governing body for the Jewish community, nor a single authority with responsibility for religious doctrine.
Although many Hassidic Jews follow a certain hereditary Hasidic dynasty , there is no one commonly accepted leader of all Hasidic Jews.
Many Jews believe that the Messiah will act a unifying leader for Jews and the entire world. A number of modern scholars of nationalism support the existence of Jewish national identity in antiquity.
One of them is David Goodblatt,  who generally believes in the existence of nationalism before the modern period.
In his view, the Bible, the parabiblical literature and the Jewish national history provide the base for a Jewish collective identity.
Although many of the ancient Jews were illiterate as were their neighbors , their national narrative was reinforced through public readings, a common practice in the ancient eastern Mediterranean area.
The Hebrew language also constructed and preserved national identity. Although it was not spoken by most of the Jews after the 5th century BCE, Goodblatt contends that:.
It is believed that Jewish nationalist sentiment in antiquity was encouraged because under foreign rule Persians, Greeks, Romans Jews were able to claim that they were an ancient nation.
This claim was based on the preservation and reverence of their scriptures, the Hebrew language, the Temple and priesthood, and other traditions of their ancestors.
Within the world's Jewish population there are distinct ethnic divisions, most of which are primarily the result of geographic branching from an originating Israelite population, and subsequent independent evolutions.
An array of Jewish communities was established by Jewish settlers in various places around the Old World , often at great distances from one another, resulting in effective and often long-term isolation.
During the millennia of the Jewish diaspora the communities would develop under the influence of their local environments: political , cultural , natural , and populational.
Today, manifestations of these differences among the Jews can be observed in Jewish cultural expressions of each community, including Jewish linguistic diversity , culinary preferences, liturgical practices, religious interpretations, as well as degrees and sources of genetic admixture.
Jews are often identified as belonging to one of two major groups: the Ashkenazim and the Sephardim. The more common term in Israel for many of those broadly called Sephardim, is Mizrahim lit.
The divisions between all these groups are approximate and their boundaries are not always clear. The Mizrahim for example, are a heterogeneous collection of North African , Central Asian , Caucasian , and Middle Eastern Jewish communities that are no closer related to each other than they are to any of the earlier mentioned Jewish groups.
In modern usage, however, the Mizrahim are sometimes termed Sephardi due to similar styles of liturgy, despite independent development from Sephardim proper.
Thus, among Mizrahim there are Egyptian Jews , Iraqi Jews , Lebanese Jews , Kurdish Jews , Moroccan Jews , Libyan Jews , Syrian Jews , Bukharian Jews , Mountain Jews , Georgian Jews , Iranian Jews , Afghan Jews , and various others.
The Teimanim from Yemen are sometimes included, although their style of liturgy is unique and they differ in respect to the admixture found among them to that found in Mizrahim.
In addition, there is a differentiation made between Sephardi migrants who established themselves in the Middle East and North Africa after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal in the s and the pre-existing Jewish communities in those regions.
As a result of their emigration from Europe , Ashkenazim also represent the overwhelming majority of Jews in the New World continents, in countries such as the United States , Canada , Argentina , Australia , and Brazil.
In France , the immigration of Jews from Algeria Sephardim has led them to outnumber the Ashkenazim. Y DNA studies tend to imply a small number of founders in an old population whose members parted and followed different migration paths.
For example, Ashkenazi Jews share more common paternal lineages with other Jewish and Middle Eastern groups than with non-Jewish populations in areas where Jews lived in Eastern Europe , Germany and the French Rhine Valley.
This is consistent with Jewish traditions in placing most Jewish paternal origins in the region of the Middle East. Conversely, the maternal lineages of Jewish populations, studied by looking at mitochondrial DNA , are generally more heterogeneous.
The populations of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jewish communities "showed no evidence for a narrow founder effect. Reflecting on their findings related to the maternal origin of Ashkenazi Jews, the authors conclude "Clearly, the differences between Jews and non-Jews are far larger than those observed among the Jewish communities.
Hence, differences between the Jewish communities can be overlooked when non-Jews are included in the comparisons. Studies of autosomal DNA , which look at the entire DNA mixture, have become increasingly important as the technology develops.
They show that Jewish populations have tended to form relatively closely related groups in independent communities, with most in a community sharing significant ancestry in common.
According to Behar, the most parsimonious explanation for this shared Middle Eastern ancestry is that it is "consistent with the historical formulation of the Jewish people as descending from ancient Hebrew and Israelite residents of the Levant " and "the dispersion of the people of ancient Israel throughout the Old World ".
In the case of Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews in particular Moroccan Jews , who are closely related, the source of non-Jewish admixture is mainly southern European , while Mizrahi Jews show evidence of admixture with other Middle Eastern populations.
Behar et al. The studies also show that persons of Sephardic Bnei Anusim origin those who are descendants of the " anusim " who were forced to convert to Catholicism throughout today's Iberia Spain and Portugal and Ibero-America Hispanic America and Brazil , estimated at up to The Bene Israel and Cochin Jews of India , Beta Israel of Ethiopia , and a portion of the Lemba people of Southern Africa , meanwhile, despite more closely resembling the local populations of their native countries, also have some more remote ancient Jewish descent.
Although historically, Jews have been found all over the world, in the decades since World War II and the establishment of Israel, they have increasingly concentrated in a small number of countries.
According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics there were 13,, Jews worldwide in , roughly 0.
According to the estimates of The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute , the world's Jewish population is According to Sergio Della Pergola , a demographer of the Jewish population , in there were about 6.
Israel , the Jewish nation-state, is the only country in which Jews make up a majority of the citizens. One of Israel's Supreme Court judges is also an Arab citizen of Israel.
Between and , the Jewish population rose from , to two million. A trickle of immigrants from other communities has also arrived, including Indian Jews and others, as well as some descendants of Ashkenazi Holocaust survivors who had settled in countries such as the United States , Argentina , Australia , Chile , and South Africa.
Some Jews have emigrated from Israel elsewhere, because of economic problems or disillusionment with political conditions and the continuing Arab—Israeli conflict.
Jewish Israeli emigrants are known as yordim. The waves of immigration to the United States and elsewhere at the turn of the 19th century, the founding of Zionism and later events, including pogroms in Imperial Russia mostly within the Pale of Settlement in present-day Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and Poland , the massacre of European Jewry during the Holocaust , and the founding of the state of Israel , with the subsequent Jewish exodus from Arab lands , all resulted in substantial shifts in the population centers of world Jewry by the end of the 20th century.
More than half of the Jews live in the Diaspora see Population table. Currently, the largest Jewish community outside Israel, and either the largest or second-largest Jewish community in the world, is located in the United States, with 5.
Elsewhere in the Americas, there are also large Jewish populations in Canada , , Argentina ,—, , and Brazil ,—, , and smaller populations in Mexico , Uruguay , Venezuela , Chile , Colombia and several other countries see History of the Jews in Latin America.
Currently, a major national Jewish population survey is planned to ascertain whether or not Israel has overtaken the United States in Jewish population.
Western Europe 's largest Jewish community, and the third-largest Jewish community in the world, can be found in France , home to between , and , Jews, the majority of whom are immigrants or refugees from North African countries such as Algeria , Morocco , and Tunisia or their descendants.
In Eastern Europe , the exact figures are difficult to establish. The number of Jews in Russia varies widely according to whether a source uses census data which requires a person to choose a single nationality among choices that include "Russian" and "Jewish" or eligibility for immigration to Israel which requires that a person have one or more Jewish grandparents.
According to the latter criteria, the heads of the Russian Jewish community assert that up to 1. Prior to , approximately , Jews were living in lands which now make up the Arab world excluding Israel.
A further , lived in Pahlavi Iran and the Republic of Turkey. Today, around 26, Jews live in Arab countries  and around 30, in Iran and Turkey.
A small-scale exodus had begun in many countries in the early decades of the 20th century, although the only substantial aliyah came from Yemen and Syria.
The peak of the exodus from Egypt occurred in The exodus in the Maghreb countries peaked in the s. Lebanon was the only Arab country to see a temporary increase in its Jewish population during this period, due to an influx of refugees from other Arab countries, although by the mids the Jewish community of Lebanon had also dwindled.
Outside Europe , the Americas , the Middle East , and the rest of Asia , there are significant Jewish populations in Australia , and South Africa 70, Since at least the time of the Ancient Greeks , a proportion of Jews have assimilated into the wider non-Jewish society around them, by either choice or force, ceasing to practice Judaism and losing their Jewish identity.
The result has been a growing trend of assimilation, as Jews marry non-Jewish spouses and stop participating in the Jewish community. The Jewish people and Judaism have experienced various persecutions throughout Jewish history.
During Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages the Roman Empire in its later phases known as the Byzantine Empire repeatedly repressed the Jewish population , first by ejecting them from their homelands during the pagan Roman era and later by officially establishing them as second-class citizens during the Christian Roman era.
Later in medieval Western Europe , further persecutions of Jews by Christians occurred, notably during the Crusades —when Jews all over Germany were massacred —and a series of expulsions from the Kingdom of England , Germany, France, and, in the largest expulsion of all , Spain and Portugal after the Reconquista the Catholic Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula , where both unbaptized Sephardic Jews and the ruling Muslim Moors were expelled.
In the Papal States , which existed until , Jews were required to live only in specified neighborhoods called ghettos.
Islam and Judaism have a complex relationship. Traditionally Jews and Christians living in Muslim lands, known as dhimmis , were allowed to practice their religions and administer their internal affairs, but they were subject to certain conditions.
They had several social and legal disabilities such as prohibitions against bearing arms or giving testimony in courts in cases involving Muslims.
The one described by Bernard Lewis as "most degrading"  was the requirement of distinctive clothing , not found in the Quran or hadith but invented in early medieval Baghdad ; its enforcement was highly erratic.
Notable exceptions include the massacre of Jews and forcible conversion of some Jews by the rulers of the Almohad dynasty in Al-Andalus in the 12th century,  as well as in Islamic Persia ,  and the forced confinement of Moroccan Jews to walled quarters known as mellahs beginning from the 15th century and especially in the early 19th century.
Throughout history, many rulers, empires and nations have oppressed their Jewish populations or sought to eliminate them entirely.
Methods employed ranged from expulsion to outright genocide ; within nations, often the threat of these extreme methods was sufficient to silence dissent.
Legislation to remove the Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II. Throughout Jewish history, Jews have repeatedly been directly or indirectly expelled from both their original homeland, the Land of Israel , and many of the areas in which they have settled.
This experience as refugees has shaped Jewish identity and religious practice in many ways, and is thus a major element of Jewish history.
Centuries later, Assyrian policy was to deport and displace conquered peoples, and it is estimated some 4,, among captive populations suffered this dislocation over 3 centuries of Assyrian rule.
Many Jews were exiled again by the Roman Empire. Over the course of the diaspora the center of Jewish life moved from Babylonia  to the Iberian Peninsula  to Poland  to the United States  and, as a result of Zionism , back to Israel.
Many of these Jews settled in Eastern Europe , especially Poland. The expelled Jews fled mainly to the Ottoman Empire , the Netherlands, and North Africa , others migrating to Southern Europe and the Middle East.
During the 19th century, France's policies of equal citizenship regardless of religion led to the immigration of Jews especially from Eastern and Central Europe.
Over two million Eastern European Jews arrived in the United States from to In summary, the pogroms in Eastern Europe,  the rise of modern antisemitism ,  the Holocaust,  and the rise of Arab nationalism  all served to fuel the movements and migrations of huge segments of Jewry from land to land and continent to continent, until they arrived back in large numbers at their original historical homeland in Israel.
In the latest phase of migrations, the Islamic Revolution of Iran caused many Iranian Jews to flee Iran. Most found refuge in the US particularly Los Angeles, California and Long Island, New York and Israel.
Smaller communities of Persian Jews exist in Canada and Western Europe. This produced a wave of migration to Israel in the early s.
Israel is the only country with a Jewish population that is consistently growing through natural population growth , although the Jewish populations of other countries, in Europe and North America, have recently increased through immigration.
In the Diaspora, in almost every country the Jewish population in general is either declining or steady, but Orthodox and Haredi Jewish communities, whose members often shun birth control for religious reasons, have experienced rapid population growth.
Orthodox and Conservative Judaism discourage proselytism to non-Jews, but many Jewish groups have tried to reach out to the assimilated Jewish communities of the Diaspora in order for them to reconnect to their Jewish roots.
Additionally, while in principle Reform Judaism favors seeking new members for the faith, this position has not translated into active proselytism, instead taking the form of an effort to reach out to non-Jewish spouses of intermarried couples.
There is also a trend of Orthodox movements reaching out to secular Jews in order to give them a stronger Jewish identity so there is less chance of intermarriage.
As a result of the efforts by these and other Jewish groups over the past 25 years, there has been a trend known as the Baal teshuva movement for secular Jews to become more religiously observant, though the demographic implications of the trend are unknown.
Jews have made many contributions to humanity in a broad and diverse range of fields, including the sciences, arts, politics, and business.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Juden. This article is about the Jewish people. For their religion, see Judaism.
For the word, see Jew word. For other uses, see Jew disambiguation. Ancient nation and ethnoreligious group from the Levant.
The Star of David which is a common symbol of the Jewish people. Predominantly spoken:  Modern Hebrew English Russian French Spanish.
Yiddish Ladino Judeo-Arabic others. Biblical Hebrew Biblical Aramaic Talmudic Aramaic. Samaritans    Other Levantines and Semitic peoples such as     Arabs   and Assyrians   .
Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim Talmud Mishnah Gemara Rabbinic Midrash Tosefta Targum Beit Yosef Mishneh Torah Tur Shulchan Aruch Zohar.
Ashkenazim Mizrahim Sephardim Teimanim Beta Israel Gruzinim Juhurim Bukharim Italkim Romanyotim Cochinim Bene Israel Related groups Bnei Anusim Lemba Crimean Karaites Krymchaks Kaifeng Jews Igbo Jews Samaritans Crypto-Jews Mosaic Arabs Subbotniks Noahides.
Orthodox Modern Haredi Hasidic Reform Conservative Karaite Reconstructionist Renewal Humanistic.
Politics of Israel Judaism and politics World Agudath Israel Anarchism Bundism Feminism Leftism Zionism General Green Labor Neo-Zionism Religious Revisionist Post-Zionism.
Main article: Jew word. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Jewish ethnonyms. Main articles: Who is a Jew?
Further information: Canaan , Israelites , Origins of Judaism , and History of ancient Israel and Judah. Main article: Jewish history.
Further information: History of the Jews in the Roman Empire. Further information: History of the Jews in Europe , History of European Jews in the Middle Ages , Mizrahi Jews , and Sephardi Jews.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Main article: Jewish culture. Main article: Judaism. Orthodox Haredi Hasidic Modern Conservative Reform.
Principles of faith Kabbalah Messiah Ethics Chosenness God Names Musar movement. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Mishneh Torah Tur Shulchan Aruch Mishnah Berurah Aruch HaShulchan Kashrut Tzniut Tzedakah Niddah Noahide laws.
Jerusalem Safed Hebron Tiberias Synagogue Beth midrash Mikveh Sukkah Chevra kadisha Holy Temple Tabernacle. Important figures. Abraham Isaac Jacob Moses Aaron David Solomon Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah.
Religious roles. Rabbi Rebbe Posek Hazzan Dayan Rosh yeshiva Mohel Kohen. Culture and education. Brit Pidyon haben Bar and Bat Mitzvah Marriage Bereavement Yeshiva Kolel Cheder.
Ritual objects. Sefer Torah Tallit Tefillin Tzitzit Kippah Mezuzah Menorah Shofar Four species Etrog Lulav Hadass Arava Kittel Gartel.
Shema Sh'ma Amidah Aleinu Kaddish Minyan Birkat Hamazon Shehecheyanu Hallel Havdalah Tachanun Kol Nidre Selichot S'lichot.
Major holidays. Rosh Hashana Yom Kippur Sukkot Pesach Shavuot Purim Hanukkah. Other religions. Judaism and Christianity Hinduism Islam Mormonism Samaritanism Abrahamic religions Judeo-Christian Pluralism.
Related topics. Jews Zionism Israel Criticism Antisemitism Anti-Judaism Holocaust theology Music Jesus Muhammad. Main article: Jewish languages. Main article: Jewish leadership.
Further information: Jewish population by country. Main article: Jewish ethnic divisions.